A woman hold a plate of pasta topped with freshly-grated parm and veggies mixed throughout.
Before switching to a vegan diet, consult your doctor about what you may need to supplement in your diet.Westend61/Getty Images
  • Veganism is a restrictive diet that eliminates all animal products like meat, eggs, and dairy. 
  • The restrictive nature of veganism can lead to a lack of vitamin B12, D, and protein. 
  • Before you go vegan, ask your doctor how to do so safely and what supplements you should take. 
  • Visit Insider's Health Reference library for more advice.

Veganism is a plant-based diet that consists of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, grains, and legumes. Unlike vegetarian diets, which allow some animal products, like dairy, vegan diets exclude all animal products, including meat, eggs, milk, and dairy products.

People choose vegan diets for several reasons, including religious, ethical, and environmental concerns. "I would recommend a vegan diet for someone concerned with animal ethics, or someone who simply does not enjoy meat," says Rebecca Tonnessen, RDN, at the Hospital for Special Surgery. 

Health reasons may also factor into your decision to turn vegan; plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. 

1. Is a vegan diet healthy? 

"When following a well-planned vegan diet, benefits include increased fiber intake and decreased saturated fat intake, which is good for digestion, cardiovascular health, and much more," says Tonnessen. 

Veganism can be a healthy diet to follow, however, it's important to make sure you're still making healthy choices and getting the right amount of vitamins and minerals from your food. 

A 2019 review of 32 studies found that vegan diets can help improve markers of diabetes and reduce inflammation. According to a 2009 study, vegan diets can also help with weight loss due to increased fiber intake, in addition to blood pressure and cholesterol levels. 

However, the latter study also found that a vegan diet can lead to deficiencies of nutrients like calcium, vitamins B12 (especially),  vitamin D, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, and zinc. "One drawback of a vegan diet is that it can be difficult to meet some nutritional needs," says Tonnessen.

2. Decide how strictly you want to follow the vegan lifestyle

Depending on your motivations for turning vegan and how strictly you want to follow the lifestyle, you can choose which foods and products you want to avoid. You can also decide whether you want to switch to a vegan lifestyle all at once, or slowly make the transition and see how it works for you. 

People often choose to go vegan because it can help prevent the slaughter and suffering of other creatures; veganism is also a more environmentally-friendly lifestyle, since meat production is wasteful and a major cause of pollution. 

3. Look out for B12 deficiency

There are very few plant-based sources of vitamin B12. "Plant-based sources of vitamin B12 include nutritional yeast or fortified products; however, supplementation may still be required for this vitamin," says Tonnessen.

This nutrient is of special concern with veganism, as 60% of people who are vegan may have a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is critical to the production of red blood cells, the functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the health of your hair, nails, and skin. It also plays a role in preventing depression. Symptoms of a deficiency include weakness, fatigue, and constipation.

4. Make sure you're getting enough calcium

Since vegan diets eliminate dairy products, which are rich sources of calcium, you may be at risk for a calcium deficiency once you go vegan. 

"Eating a variety of dark, leafy greens and nuts can help increase your calcium intake. Fortified products such as orange juice, nut milks, and soy products have calcium added; oftentimes vitamin D will be added as well," says Tonnessen. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium, so it's an equally important nutrient for healthy bones. Without vitamin D, your body is only able to absorb 10% to 15% of the calcium from your diet.

The recommended calcium intake is 1,000 milligrams per day for most adults. You might consider taking a calcium supplement if you're falling short of your requirement. But be aware of the fact that most calcium supplements contain vitamin D as well. 

5. Explore different plant proteins

It is possible to meet your protein requirements without traditional sources of protein like meat, seafood, dairy, and eggs. You can try out different protein-rich plant-based foods and get creative. 

Plant-based proteins are often good sources of fiber, according to Tonnessen, and they are also lower in saturated fat than animal proteins like beef, pork, skinned poultry, and cheese. Diets rich in saturated fat are associated with weight gain and heart disease. 

6. Pair plant-based iron with vitamin C

To avoid an iron deficiency, Tonnessen says to make sure you're eating plenty of iron-rich foods, like:

  • Quinoa
  • Lentils
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Fortified cereals

The iron in plants is referred to as non-heme iron, which is harder for your body to absorb than animal-based iron, which is referred to as heme iron. Your body is able to absorb anywhere between 15% to 35% of the heme iron you eat, but only 2% to 20% of the non-heme iron you consume.

However, you can increase absorption of non-heme iron with a simple trick, according to Tonnessen: Eating plant-based iron with foods rich in Vitamin C, like bell peppers or oranges.  Vitamin C will help you absorb iron. For example, you can make a warm quinoa salad with roasted bell peppers, or a leafy green salad garnished with orange slices. 

7. Consult a nutritionist

Other nutrients of concern on a vegan diet may be omega-3 fatty acids and zinc. Omega-3 can be found in some plant-based foods like walnuts, flax seeds and chia seeds. Chia seeds also contain zinc; this mineral is also added to fortified breakfast cereals. 

Talking to a nutritionist before you go vegan can help you assess your nutritional requirements, structure your daily diet to make sure you're meeting all your needs, and determine which supplements you need. 

8. Expect some initial discomfort 

Changing your regular diet — whether it's for better or worse — may come with some gastrointestinal discomfort as your digestive tract gets used to the new menu.

In particular, vegans generally eat more fiber, which can be more taxing on digestion since our bodies don't have the enzymes to break down an excess of fiber. This may cause temporary discomfort in the form of gas, bloating, and cramping. Increasing your fiber intake gradually can help your body adjust to the changes along with drinking more fluids. 

In the long run, increased fiber intake is in fact associated with healthier gut bacteria, so you can expect a healthier gut microbiome over time, as you commit to a vegan diet with more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. 

9. Know that whether you lose weight will depend on your choices

Going vegan can help you lose weight; a small 2015 study assigned 62 participants to different diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and omnivorous diets for a period of six months. The group following the vegan diet lost more weight (around 7.5% of their body weight) than any of the other groups, and also consumed the least saturated fat. 

However, whether you actually lose weight or not can depend on your choices; you can gain weight on a vegan diet too, if your portion sizes are too large or if your diet involves a lot of processed or high-calorie foods, like desserts, fried foods, sweetened drinks, processed vegan meats and cheeses, and unhealthy snacks. Eating lots of chips, crackers, and cookies can lead to weight gain no matter which diet you follow.

10. Get used to scanning food labels

Many processed foods contain egg, milk, or milk products like whey, according to a 2016 study, so you may have to scan grocery labels to determine whether a food is vegan. 

A plus is that many companies make it a point to label vegan foods appropriately, like vegan cheese for example, so that can make shopping easier for you. Many foods are also marked with the "Certified Vegan" logo, which can make it easier for you to identify them. 

If a food is not labeled, you can check the ingredient list to determine whether it's vegan or not. These are some animal-based ingredients to watch out for:

Ingredient What it is

Also known as: Resinous glaze, E904

A substance excreted by the lac insect


Also known as: E120

A red pigment obtained by killing cochineal beetles


Also known as: E913

A substance secreted by sheep, obtained from sheep wool
Rennet The stomach of a calf
Lactose/Dextrose Sugars found in animal milk

Animal fat

11. Understand that vegan food isn't automatically healthy 

Even if your goal isn't necessarily weight loss, it's important to note that vegan food doesn't automatically mean healthy food.  

"Sometimes people think anything labeled vegan, including processed foods, is healthy. Vegan cookies are still cookies with high sugar and fat content, so it's important to monitor this intake. If you're thinking of going vegan, focus on increasing your intake of whole foods instead of processed vegan snacks," says Tonnessen. 

12. Get creative when you eat out

Being vegan doesn't have to mean you can't eat out. Here are some simple tips that Tonnessen recommends when eating out:

  • Look for vegan options on the menu or better yet look for restaurants that advertise they serve vegan-friendly meals
  • Make sure the dish you're ordering was not cooked in butter or chicken stock.
  • Order a few sides, if you're at a restaurant with limited options, as side dishes can often be prepared vegan.

Indian, Chinese, and Thai cuisines typically feature a lot of vegan options, according to Harvard Medical School, so you can opt for those restaurants when you eat out.

Vegan and plant-based diets are gaining popularity so see if there are any vegan designated restaurants in your area for a new dining experience.

13. Enjoy vegan versions of your favorite foods

The International Vegan Association says that vegan foods include salads, soups, stews, casseroles, and stir-fries. The only difference is that they're made with plant-based ingredients. 

In fact, many traditional favorites like burgers, pizza, lasagna, tacos, burritos, sandwiches, pancakes, and desserts can also be made with vegan ingredients. So, even though going vegan does involve changes to your lifestyle, it doesn't mean you can't enjoy some of your favorite foods. 

Insider's takeaway

Many people opt for the vegan lifestyle for ethical and environmental reasons, to avoid harming animals and help prevent climate change. Others decide to go vegan for health reasons, or because they simply don't enjoy meat.

A vegan diet is associated with health benefits like lower cholesterol and blood pressure, better heart health, and a reduced risk of cancer and diabetes.

However, it can be harder to obtain certain nutrients on a vegan diet, so you need to plan accordingly, to make sure you incorporate them into your diet. "With proper planning and education, a well-balanced vegan diet can work for anyone" says Tonnessen.

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